Total Mineral Removal
There are many processes that require extremely high purity water, that is not only free of particulates, but has all dissolved matter removed from it. Examples of this range from the pharmaceutical industry, to industrial air conditioning and from production engineering to commercial catering. Typically high purity waters are demanded for laboratory use, many humidification systems and steam boiler feed systems. Hydrotec produce these high quality waters using the process of reverse osmosis through our HydroMOS® range of equipment. The smaller of our HydroMOS® systems is shown in the picture below.
Osmosis is a natural process, occurring frequently in nature and is the process or force that drives water to move from a lower salt concentration solution to a higher salt concentration solution, when they are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. In other words water molecules will move through a membrane (often the skin of an animal or plant) to try to equalise the salt concentrations on either side of it. In reverse osmosis we reverse this process, by applying pressure to one side of the semi-permeable membrane we can cause water to flow from the higher concentration solution to the lower one. By careful selection of the membrane it is possible to produce extremely pure waters by this technique.
This picture shows the skin of the cherry acting as a semipermeable membrane when cherry placed in very pure water natural osmotic pressure will cause the pure water to percolate through the skin of the cherry to equalise the high ‘salt’ concentration inside the cherry. In time the cherry will swell and ultimately rupture. Reverse osmosis exploits this principal by using a high pressure pump and a membrane system to create water free of all impurities, including mineral salts, leaving just pure water!
- Micro Filtration breaks emulsions and removes bacteria
- Ultra Filtration, as micro filtration and additionally colloids, viruses and proteins
- Nano Filtration, as ultra-filtration and additionally pesticide and colour
- Reverse Osmosis, as nano filtration and additionally removes all dissolved mineral salts, such as sodium, potassium, chlorides, phosphates, sulphates etc, indeed anything that may be dissolved in the water.
The design of HydroMOS® systems is a specialist process and Hydrotec can perform this work in house through its technical engineer service. Indeed the operation and performance of the RO system is critical upon the design of the system. In each case we would recommend a detailed water analysis, both to be able to predict the final quality of water that may be possible, but also to ensure that the membrane, which is a very sensitive material, is not damaged by the impurities that may be present in the water. For example it is frequently necessary to remove calcium and magnesium hardness from the water, by the use of a HydroION® water softener and residual chlorine reserves by the use of a HydroSOLV® carbon filter. Additionally our in house engineering resource can also advise on the interconnection of booster pumps, tanks and level switches essential for efficient and reliable operation.
The picture on the right shows one of the larger members of the HydroMOS® family, typically these would be used for large scale pharmaceutical applications or boiler feed production.